A) Articles, papers and lecture notes
1. SaltMod manual
2. SahysMod manual
This manual gives a description of the Saltmod
model (see Software page or below)including its
principles, user menu, and case studies.
See table of contents
This manual gives a description of the SahysMod
model (see Software page or below) including its
principles, user menu, and case studies
SahysMod is a combination of Saltmod and a
mathematical (numerical) groundwater model
simulating water flow and salinity in unconfined
and semiconfined (leaky) aquifers.
See table of contents
Looking over the shoulder of a farmer to his
salinized land with poor crop stand.
B) Free software and models
a mathematical, numerical simulation model describing
the relations between agriculture, crop rotation,
irrigation, rainfall, potential and actual evaporation
(evapotranspiration), climate, hydrology, depth and
level of water-table, capillary rise, deep percolation,
soil salinity and subsurface drainage by drains or
wells, and reuse (conjunctive use) of ground and drain
water from wells. It includes farmers' responses
to water logging and soil salinity.
A simplified version of SaltMod with the advantage
that calculations can be made for shorter time steps
(e.g. weekl or monthly). SaltCalc can be used when
field observations of irrigation, water table and
soil salinity have been made and one wishes to
develop a model for that situation. Normally,
calibration of unknown values must be done using a
range of values of the corresponding variable,
running the model repeatedly for a number of time
steps, and selecting from the range the value giving
model results closest to observed values as the
This model is somewhat similar to SaltCalc. On the
one hand the water management options are fewer
(e.g. re-use of drainage or well water for
irrigation do not feature here), but the model is
more modern in the sense that the variable input for
each time step is given in a table so that the
calculations over all the time steps are done in one
go. Moreover, by inserting the observed values of
soil salinity in the data table, the model optimizes
the leaching efficiency of the soil.
a combination of Saltmod with a model of ground
water flow and hydraulics to account for large
spatial variation through a network of polygons.
It includes phreatic (unconfined) aquifers as well
as soil layers with slow vertical hydraulic
conductivity (soil permeability for water) resulting
in emiconfined (leaky) aquifers.
C) Frequently asked questions
Polders for rice cultivation on acid sulfate
amidst the mangroves of Guinea Bissau
1 - What are saline and salty soils, how do they
originate, where are they found, what is their
problem, how can the problem be solved?
This is the paper on
There is also a programmed self-help exercise
on water and salt balances and leaching
(reclamation) of a saline, salty and sodic,
soil in Chacupe, Peru. Soil salinity, sodicity
and alkalinity are analysed:
A description of salinity development and
control in a small
coastal delta in
Peru can be can be consulted here.
See also "Salinity control" in
2 - What are alkali, alkaline sodic and acid
sulphate (sulfate) soils (cat clays), how do
they originate, where are they found, what is
their problem, how can the problem be solved?
3 - What is the development of river salinity in
downstream direction when, in arid and semi-arid
regions, the salty river water is used for
irrigation of agricultural land and the drainage
flow and effluent are returned to the river,
and what are the effects on soil salinity and
how can eventual problems of salty soils be